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Category: Material Science and Engineering

Experiments under the department of Material Science and Engineering

Non-Destructive Testing of Materials

Non-Destructive Testing of Materials

Introduction Non-destructive testing defects could either be inherent, primary or secondary. Inherent defects include: hot tears, shrinkages and inclusions. Primary defects occurs during shaping process such as forging, extrusion and welding. Secondary or in-service defects deals with machine defects during operation. The processes of carrying out the procedure includes: visual observation and mechanical testing. These tests can be carried out on metals, plastics, ceramics, cement, etc. in order to evaluate cracks, internal voids, surface cavities, incomplete defective welds and any…

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Metallography

Metallography

Introduction Metallography involves the procedures required to view the internal micro structure of a metal. The properties of engineering materials that are in everyday use are dependent on the compositions of the materials that are used in making them. In case of metals, two components may be made out of the same material with the same composition but still have different properties. One other parameter that determines the properties of a component which also depends on composition and or heat…

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Mechanical Properties of Materials

Mechanical Properties of Materials

Introduction The mechanical properties of a material are investigated if the material is to be used for any engineering purpose and the aim of this is to allow tensile and compressive tests to be carried out on any kind of material using a tensometer. The mechanical properties of materials include: tensile strength, compressive strength, yield strength, ductility, malleability, toughness, breaking or rupture strength among many others. But ductility, malleability and toughness are fundamental properties in engineering.             Ductility refers to…

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Identification of Minerals

Identification of Minerals

Introduction Most minerals are easily identified by their physical properties such as lustre, colour, hardness, streak, cleavage and parting, fracture and tenacity, magnetism, radioactivity and reaction with acid. This experiment is important since it gives the knowledge and information of the properties of minerals and this knowledge helps in choosing the right materials for specific purposes in service.  During this process of identification, the following properties should be noted: 1. Lustre: This refers to the response of minerals to light….

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Heat Treatment

Heat Treatment

Introduction Heat treatment is the process of heating or chilling a material usually at extreme temperatures in order to achieve the hardening or softening of the material. It involves heating the material up to austenizing temperature and then allowing it to cool at a specific rate. Materials consists of microstructure called grains or crystallites. The nature of the grains (i.e. the grain size and composition) is one of the most effective factors that can determine the overall mechanical behaviour of…

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Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Low Carbon Steel

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Low Carbon Steel

Introduction Steel      A Steel is a hard, tough metal composed of iron, alloyed with various small percentage of carbon and often variously with other metals such as nickel, chromium, manganese, etc. But to adequately defining a steel: the principal portion of the definition for steel is “an iron base alloy, malleable in some temperature range as initially cast, containing manganese, usually carbon, and often other alloying elements. In carbon steel and low-alloy steel, the maximum carbon is about 2.0%; in…

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